When packaging goes green

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Can eco-responsibility and luxury cohabit when it comes to bottling and packaging fragrances?
The liquid evaporates, but the bottle remains while the packaging piles up. And the conventional codes of fragrance packaging — immaculate whiteness, perfect paper grain, crystal-clear glass and a heft associated with noble materials — do not seem compatible with sustainable solutions. Nonetheless, techniques are improving, attitudes are shifting, and some natural-focused brands are opting for alternatives.
What answers exist today that can reconcile the urgent need for change with luxury brands’ requirements?

A collector’s item and formal manifestation of an invisible fragrance, the bottle is a powerful form of communication for the scent it contains. It is therefore difficult to compromise on its quality, finish and appearance. However, two major technical avenues have been explored to reduce the environmental impact of its production. The first is to develop the use of refillable bottles. The second is to reduce the carbon footprint of manufacturing by switching from gas to electric furnaces, or making greater use of recycled and recyclable materials.

But what is usually called a bottle is actually an assembly of different elements made from heterogeneous materials – glass body, plastic pump, plastic, metal or glass cap, not to mention the transition components that ensure a seal – meaning that bottles must be considered from multiple angles, making them a real headache to recycle.

Technical exploit and new design

Let’s start with the main part, the body, the receptacle for the liquid: the bottle itself, also known as the primary packaging. Although new materials have recently appeared in suppliers’ catalogues, including highly recyclable aluminium and zamak, a zinc, aluminium, magnesium and copper alloy, which is still not widely recycled, glass remains king. While it is potentially recycled and recyclable, when it comes to luxury, high standards of excellence reign. And that’s the problem! When it is important to satisfy customers accustomed to an impeccable end result, incorporating recycled glass into the product recipe, with the possibilities it brings of changing the visual and shaping qualities, is only acceptable if it can equal the original outcome. The Pochet Group, whose bottling division, Pochet du Courval, soon celebrates its 400th anniversary, is the oldest glassmaker in France and is highly regarded by major luxury brands for the quality of its glass.

Its exclusive SEVA glass, which stands for “eco-responsible solution, vision of the future”, is a big success. “The SEVA 1 line includes 14% recycled glass specially collected from the high-end perfume industry, and SEVA 3 is composed of 15% PCR post-consumer glass,” says Anne-Sophie Legras, the company’s product marketing manager. “The transparency, malleability and colour of each line are identical to our signature glass.” The result has won over the company’s partner brands, starting with Viktor&Rolf and, more recently, Chanel for the 100th anniversary limited edition of N°5.

It should be noted that in glassmaking, recycling is already part of the manufacturing process since cullet, waste glass, is one of the ingredients. But SEVA contains high proportions of recycled glass and the figures announced do not include cullet. This percentage is expected to increase and we are already seeing the appearance on the market of bottles made of 40% recycled PCR glass, such as the model created for Rochas’ Girl by Verescence.

Another option for limiting the bottle’s environmental impact using eco-design is to reduce the glass walls. Thinner walls weigh less, a significant criterion for transport and e-commerce. “This innovation is a feature of the 15-mm bottles used for Gabrielle by Chanel and Idôle by Lancôme,” says Anne-Sophie Legras. A technical feat proving that sustainable solutions can give birth to a new design style.

Home refills

As for refillable bottles, Mugler pioneered the concept in the 1990s with the launch of La Source, a reinvention of the vinegar fountain found in 18th-century perfumeries. Customers had to go to a store to refill their bottles from the fountain. Now, driven by an approach shared by glassmakers, brands and pump manufacturers, under the aegis of CETIE [the International Technical Centre for Bottling], screw caps have been standardised, competing with the traditional tamper – proof crimp rings, and suitable collars (the pump heads) have shrunk to match established visual codes. This improvement has encouraged in-home refilling with a large container and bottle equipped with a screw-on pump. In support of the trend, refills are now available in portable formats that can be purchased in stores or online, an approach brands are increasingly adopting with different filling options. In the spirit of upcycling, some brands are even proposing vintage bottles, such as Floratropia, which also sells small refills in a flexible pouch. Others focus on the sustainable reuse of their bottles, so beautiful that no one would dare throw them away, such as those featuring in the new collection by Dries Van Noten.

In France, major retailers like Sephora, Nocibé and Marionnaud offer a recovery and recycling service for bottles that are returned to glassmakers via specialised sorting platforms such as Cèdre. Customers who use the programme get a discount coupon in exchange.

Wood and cork

The bottle’s cap and pump are harder to recycle and now get specific treatments. Caps have plastic inserts, designed to ensure a seal, which are difficult to recycle. In response, Pochet has developed the “eternal top”, an aluminium cap with a built-in magnet: all its parts can be disassembled so that the magnet and weight can be reused. Coverpla offers wooden caps with a cork insert for a better seal. The brand Obvious has also adopted cork for its zero-insert caps made from wine bottle cork production waste. As for the pump, plastic is widely preferred for the internal parts because it is inert and avoids any interaction with the perfume components. Although plastic cannot be avoided in pumps, some plastics are more advisable than others. For instance, in 2021 thanks to an agreement with the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, which lobbies for the circular economy and denounces the use of certain plastics, Aptar, one of the leaders in the field, launched its InUne collection that contains no POM (polyoxymethylene), a controversial plastic.

As for secondary packaging, meaning everything that surrounds the bottle, many defenders of the environmental cause feel that “the best packaging is no packaging”. Especially since luxury codes usually require a transparent folded cellophane overwrap, its presence is the guarantee of an intact product. In the context of a pandemic, this hygienic connotation is reassuring for some consumers, but today this is being questioned. Houses like Fragonard claim to have never used this approach. When it comes to cardboard, companies are increasingly committed to sourcing from sustainably managed forests with FSC certification. And overall, sustainable alternatives exist. In this sense, niche houses are daring to adopt strategies that show greater commitment. They include an original initiative from Aemium: taking an eco-conscious approach to all assembled parts, it has chosen packaging in the form of wooden boxes sourced from sustainably managed forests. In the same spirit, Olibanum, in addition to offering a lighter bottle, has abandoned caps and offers boxes made of unprocessed recycled cardboard, unbleached, without cellophane, and with water-based and solvent-free glues and inks. It is also worth mentioning the FSC-certified cardboard boxes from Essential Parfums, with the visible bottle nestled inside, held by a cardboard band. Also noteworthy is Une Nuit Nomade’s offer: the brand now sells its perfumes without packaging and with a €10 discount.

Mushroom packaging

On the traditional luxury side, Philippe Ughetto, vice-president of Doro packaging, a company specialising in the sector, explains: “For packaging manufacturers, there is a common commitment to the future, reducing environmental impact, both from the point of view of the production chain with a reduction in carbon emissions, and from the product viewpoint. As far as production is concerned, the general trend is towards ecodesign to reduce paper weights, abandon foam padding in favour of cardboard, and consider single-material assemblies that are easier to recycle. As for printing, natural inks are preferred. Finally, research and development efforts are looking at bio-sourced materials based, for example, on pulp and natural fibres.” Nevertheless, there is no denying that these innovations still come with a higher price tag than previous methods, and not all brands are ready to play the game.

One interesting bio-sourced option is the material invented by Sulpac, a Finnish company that has developed an industrially compostable material made from wood chip and plant binder. Another, more surprising, innovation is the material made from mycelium – mushroom filaments – proposed by Dutch business Grown and Britain’s Magical Mushroom. Organic, insulating, compostable and shock-resistant, mushroom packaging has many advantages and is used by brands such as Haeckels, Ffern and Lush. If this type of innovation is still struggling to fully integrate luxury standards, perhaps luxury can review its standards?

Jan Berbee, CEO of Grown, explains: “We are at the start of the wave, currently maybe better called a ripple. Companies are starting to understand the devastating effects of single-use or plastic packaging. More and more signals are being picked up by the luxury industry that the environmental impact of their packaging needs to be drastically reduced. Those signals come from governments, sometimes simply through legislation, but also many NGOs have started nudging or pushing the industry to start the much-needed change. And probably most importantly: more and more end users simply do not accept useless or less sustainable packaging. The vast amount of unboxing videos with negative comments are a strong evidence. The Plastic Pollution Coalition website[1]https://www.plasticpollutioncoalition.org/blog/the-cosmetics-industrys-plastic-packaging-problem is just one of many that denounces the ‘ugly truth of beautiful packaging’.”

Creating awareness

Mentalities are certainly evolving, but there is inertia in the sector, largely because companies have often made substantial investments, especially in machinery, to implement old-fashioned, i.e. unsustainable, packaging solutions. Jan Berbee feels that the most important and urgent next step is creating awareness. For companies like Grown, the goal is to increase capacity and become more accessible by adding more factories in Europe, which will also lead to cost reduction and further innovation. Of course, the raw and organic look of the product, unbleached and rough, is something the company is still working on to attract new houses and better align with luxury codes. It is also amusing to consider the long-term cohabitation of mushroom and perfume as the reconciliation of two contradictory concepts: one the symbolism of mould, the other of conservation, complementing each other on many levels.

For the shift to green packaging in general, we can therefore hope in the very near future to see the replacement of parts and accessories that are not recyclable, and changes in consumer expectations. Suppliers and major brands are adopting new systems and implementing innovations on an industrial scale. The impetus coming from certain niche companies – because they are freer, do not have the same deep pockets and are therefore necessarily inventive – is also something worth watching: they will undoubtedly help to inspire the entire sector with their radical choices and decisions to renounce certain materials and techniques.


Summary

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Never has the issue of safeguarding natural resources and the future of communities seemed so pressing than at present due to climate change. Some companies did not wait to take action in this crucial area. The Givaudan Group, in committing to becoming a certified B Corporation (B Corp), reducing its environmental footprint and developing a Naturality Platform for developing more nature conscious fragrances, has, in this way, established itself as a pioneer. In 2013, Givaudan created a nonprofit organization, the Givaudan Foundation, whose first mission was to give life to its pledges to the communities in which it operates, a stance which resonates with its newly unveiled brand identity, “Human by Nature.” As Laetitia Vuillemenot, Givaudan Foundation Lead, reveals: “The Foundation was born of the desire of the Givaudan company to reinforce its social and environmental commitments to the producers of natural ingredients for the perfumery industry (vanilla, patchouli, tonka bean, etc.) and to the surrounding communities, more broadly. But it was also conceived to offer a space and a means to Givaudan’s collaborators seeking to engage in volunteer projects around the world. And lastly, it was designed to involve certain clients by inviting them to contribute to local initiatives – a key lever for building bridges between the finished product and its point of provenance while giving meaning to the entire production process.” Several of these clients participate in specific community programs, such as those within the supply chains of vanilla in Madagascar, ylang-ylang in the Comoros Islands and vetiver in Haiti. 

Making quality, sustainability and solidarity align

Endowed with an independent and dedicated organization, the Foundation endeavors to concentrate its support in the core areas of the Givaudan business, where it provides beneficiaries with added value in terms of know-how and experience, notably through skills sponsorship. Going beyond philanthropy, its teams do not limit themselves to financing projects. Instead, they are directly involved in developing and supervising them, calling on the expertise of qualified local partners, including NGOs, research institutions, associations and universities. “Our philosophy is to listen to communities. We are attentive to deploying projects that are efficient and responsive to local needs, which calls for a tailored approach,” Laetitia Vuillemenot explains. The choice of projects, determined by the selection committee, takes into account two overarching principles: the possibility of a long-term commitment to give partnerships time to bear fruit and a certain adaptability to local contexts and propositions from volunteers. The projects supported thus vary considerably, reflecting the diversity of the countries of Givaudan’s collaborators, as well as their creativity.

Among the most emblematic of its initiatives is the program dedicated to the protection of ylang-ylang on the island of Mohéli in the Comoros. It aims to deliver environmental and economic support: the protection of natural resources in association with Mohéli National Park (recently added to UNESCO’s World Network of Biosphere Reserves) and a literacy program for women, which supports the development of entrepreneurial projects for a better living. To cite another example, in India, the Foundation finances projects for access to safe drinking water for an ethnic minority that collects Boswellia resin, a leading ingredient in the cosmetics industry. 

The Givaudan Foundation additionally supports training and research programs devoted to improving the quality and sustainability of supply chains. In Egypt, for instance, it assists farmers of the precious jasmine flower in the adoption of agricultural practices that respect biodiversity. As for lavender and lavandin, two pillars in perfumery, they have been the objects of ambitious research programs seeking to make them more resistant – yesterday to disease, tomorrow to global warming. “The Givaudan Foundation also increasingly plays the role of an incubator, in helping to crystallize the ideas of collaborators,” emphasizes Laetitia Vuillemenot. To provide a beautiful illustration, the project “Ma Madeleine,” developed by the Givaudan Perfumery School in partnership with researchers, consists of a web application that works in tandem with an olfactory rehabilitation kit to target anosmia.

Today, after eight years in existence, with 100 projects in 30 countries and a budget that has quadrupled, the Givaudan Foundation is doing even more to support communities and the environment. 

https://www.givaudan-foundation.org/

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When we think that the perfume industry brings together thousands of raw materials from all over the world in large quantities every day, it is clear that sustainability issues are very much a feature of its work. All the major composition houses began the process of going green a decade or more ago. And while most of the companies we contacted for this article claim they are pioneers or leaders in the field, what we see is that they all follow similar approaches. Sustainable development is both a core component of their global strategies and a key marketing claim for their ingredients and scented creations.

The composition companies that dominate the market want to ensure that each of their products reflects this commitment. In order to do so, they have embedded it in a crucial part of their activities: the formulation tool. This software, specific to each company, is used by every perfumer to devise their formulas, giving real-time access to all the data on any given ingredient: stock availability, current market price per kilo, possible regulatory restrictions, etc., as well as a range of indicators relating to its sustainability. "For some time now, our tool has included various criteria to help our perfumers compose by providing an overview of all a brief's parameters, including, of course, sustainability: green chemistry, upcycling, renewable, biodegradable, and so on," explains Valery Claude, vice-president of creation, design and innovation at International Flavors & Fragrances (IFF). Firmenich uses the same approach. Its EcoScent Compass tool, developed with the Quantis consultancy between 2011 and 2018, "holistically assesses the sustainability footprint of the fragrances created by our perfumers based on three detailed fields of criteria, including key performance indicators: nature and circularity of ingredients in the fragrance (renewability, biodegradability, green chemistry, E factor[fn]A concept invented in 1991 and used in the chemical industry to calculate the ratio of the mass of waste per mass of product.[/fn]), environmental footprint (climate change, depletion of water resources and e-toxicity) and social impacts (employee and supplier working conditions and responsible sourcing)," explains Michal Benmayor, Firmenich vice-president of global strategic business development. Improvements to the tool will soon see the "inclusion of different renewable carbon sources, such as carbon that has been recycled or recaptured, updated substitution values[fn]Software feature that will make it possible to  improve fragrances’ eco-responsibility rating with just one click and without compromising their olfactory qualities.[/fn] and the ability to include passive water use[fn]During the FirGood microwave-based extraction process recently patented by the company, water already present in the raw materials is the only water used.[/fn]." This list of criteria is a little dizzying, illustrating the complexity of a subject that can be approached from so many different angles, all of them relevant. Although composition houses usually rely on the authority of one or more independent experts, each takes a different approach to defining and applying sustainable development.

The different faces of sustainability

The same applies to perfume brands and their claims surrounding the sustainability or naturalness of their fragrances. Behind terms that are now ubiquitous lies a reality comprising a huge variety of visions, approaches and, therefore, requirements when it comes to composition. A high proportion of renewable ingredients? Positive social impacts in raw materials sectors? A majority of natural essences? In response to the diversity of demands, some formulation tools are designed to allow perfumers to select the criteria prioritised by each client, and aim for a positive final score based on these criteria. When Symrise perfumer Aliénor Massenet launches a new project, she adjusts the sliders on the Product Sustainability Scorecard, a tool the company patented eight years ago that assesses each raw material according to 10 criteria for renewability, biodegradability and also impact on biodiversity and the soil.

The challenge is to adapt to each client's specifications. An example? "When J.U.S came to see us with a concept centring on upcycling, it made sense for me to work on a perfume with a high proportion of ingredients synthesised from renewable carbon: the final composition contains 95% of it." She also points out that there are not sustainable ingredients on one side and unsustainable ingredients on the other: everything depends on the criteria used to assess them. "Some are biodegradable but not carbon-renewable. Others score well in terms of human impact, but less on the environmental level. It's impossible to get an all-round high rating: if a client asked me for a composition scoring 100/100 everywhere...I'd give them a glass of water!" Several of the people interviewed share her enthusiasm for formulation tools, which they see as a vehicle for intelligent discussion with brands, helping to shift preconceived ideas and bring nuanced clarifications to subjects that are too often seen simplistically. When you have the figures to prove your point, it’s easier to explain, for example, that green and natural are far from synonymous: natural ingredients often have a larger carbon footprint than synthetics.

Although sustainability has many faces, some companies chose to assess it against fixed parameters, independent of their clients' requirements. Launched three years ago, Givaudan's Naturality Index is based on an assessment of all its ingredients and uses criteria established in-house by a team of experts so that each perfume formula can be rated. It is unchangeable "as the index represents Givaudan's view of the relevance of criteria that perfumers use to formulate in a responsible manner: carbon footprint, biodegradability and sourcing," explains Marypierre Julien, a naturals innovation perfumer. Mane, based in Grasse, relies on green chemistry. This concept emerged in the 1990s in the USA in response to the desire to limit the pollution associated with traditional chemistry, providing a framework for applying sustainable development principles to the world of chemistry. Eleven years ago, the 12 principles laid out by Paul Anastas and John Warner were used as the basis for developing the Green Motion algorithm that systematically assesses all Mane’s ingredients and compositions according to the same criteria. They are rated from 0 to 100, with 100 the best possible score, and clients that ask are told the results. "Getting brands to understand how and why we designed our tool involves taking the time to share knowledge, but they realise that it’s based on very tangible factors: factual scientific data. The large companies now pay close attention to what we say. We help them understand green issues, in the broadest sense, to appropriate them and talk about them more clearly," says Véronique Nyberg. Vice-president of fine fragrances at Mane, she offers the example of an Italian client that recently commissioned her to create a composition. "They wanted to put an eco-designed fragrance on the market, but they wanted to get their messaging right. So they asked us to help them understand the subject, then to help them educate their consumers in turn." Featuring a QR code on its packaging that links to a page on the Mane website, the perfume is a hit: the brand has already asked Véronique Nyberg to create the next one.

Impact on creation

Designed to make it as easy as possible for perfumers to adapt to current major market trends, these tools help make their daily work run more smoothly. "If the tools didn't exist it would be a nightmare for them, because they would constantly have to exit their formulation software to look for the information they need from external resources, and that would be next to impossible given project turnaround times," says Valéry Claude from IFF. However, the tools do have a direct impact on their creativity: pursuing the ideal of a sustainable fragrance, however the term is defined, shapes the concept from the start by influencing the selection of ingredients. EcoScent Compass uses artificial intelligence to provide perfumers with an alternative for each ingredient which might have a negative impact on the formula. At Mane, Véronique Nyberg is happy to be guided by the Green Motion rating for her raw materials: "When I'm working on a formula and I want a woody note, for example, I'll look at the scores of my different options. And I'll probably choose Santamanol, which scores around 50, rather than Bacdanol, with a score of around 30." Given that many brands require "an ever higher score", as she explains, the use of certain ingredients with a large environmental impact – like most of the synthetic musks, produced by successive chemical reactions, and some woody molecules – has of course fallen off. To retain these key notes in contemporary fragrances without tarnishing their green aura, brands are choosing to work with lower concentrations so that the ingredients making up the concentrate, once they are diluted to a greater degree in alcohol and water, represent a lower proportion of the final product. But some restrictions are harder to circumvent, like when a family of fragrances depends on ingredients with low scores. "Right now it's very complicated to work on abstract florals," says Aliénor Massenet regretfully. "But maybe that will change!"

A Yuka for fragrances

We can certainly hope so. The Yuka app sent a shockwave through the agri-food industry. It provides consumers with increased access to information and the means to act on it, and food brands have had no choice but to adapt. Many of them overhauled their catalogues, developing ranges that better meet their customers’ needs, tweaking recipes and changing sourcing, developing new products and, occasionally, abandoning existing products that could not be salvaged. In the fragrance world, the need to keep formulas secret rules out the use of a comparison tool: it is impossible to objectively evaluate perfumes on the market if their recipes are only known to their producers. But it is not impossible to imagine these lines shifting: a small number of brands, such as J.U.S, Versatile, Bastille, Lush and J’emme for example, have already made the leap and revealed the formulas behind their compositions (or at least part of them), a proof of transparency in stark contrast with the usual impenetrability. This approach hasn't escaped the attention of the industry giants. For its different brand formulas, L’Oréal will soon be providing online access to "at least 95% by weight of the ingredients present in the pure fragrance," according to the company's website. Until someone develops a Yuka for fragrances, the omnipresence of assessment tools in the perfume development process necessarily has a knock-on effect on perfumes and the ingredients they contain. Because they are also raw material producers, composition houses use these new rating systems not only to develop raw materials that achieve a good score but also to try and improve existing ingredients. Many existing fragrances are being revamped. "Some clients ask us to analyse all the formulas we have produced for them to date, and to try and improve their score. Others want one of their perfumes in particular to become eco-responsible and commission us to reformulate it," explains Véronique Nyberg.

One tool for the future?

A question arises in the face of these many and various visions of sustainable development and the tools designed to make them a reality: why don't industry leaders agree on a single rating tool to be shared with everyone? Mane is one company convinced of the all-round benefits of such an approach, and in 2013 it provided free and open online access to Green Motion so that anyone can use it to calculate the score of a given ingredient or composition. Michal Benmayor's view is that Firmenich's EcoScent Compass "based on internationally recognised metrics and guidelines, including the European Commission's research on Product Environmental Footprint (PEF), IFRA guidelines on sustainable fragrances, and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development’s assessment of the social impact of chemical products, is the first tool to offer a standardised, replicable approach to measure the degree of sustainability offered by different actors in the industry." He concludes: "we feel that all the sector's businesses and brands should have access to a tool they can use to assess and improve a perfume's natural and sustainable profile, and we recommend aligning the industry with our EcoScent Compass." Consumers who are keen to use green or sustainable fragrances would be very likely to welcome the existence of a single tool they could use to effectively compare products from various companies. But can we really imagine the companies that dominate the perfumery market adopting a shared ideal, forsaking the fiercely competitive outlook that sets them against each other, and relinquishing a tool that also lets them stand out from the crowd? However sincere and virtuous the respective commitments may be, sustainable development is still a sales argument it would be foolish to forego.

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Perfumery and sustainable development: behind the messaging

Givaudan Foundation: A tailored commitment to communities and nature

Perfumery and sustainable development: behind the messaging

Responsible formulation: different tools, one ideal

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